A systematic review and meta-analysis of the outcome of ileal pouch anal anastomosis in patients with obesity

Sameh Hany Emile, Sualeh Muslim Khan, Steven D Wexner
Surgery 2021, 170 (6): 1629-1636

BACKGROUND: Ileal-pouch anal anastomosis is used for treatment of different conditions, including mucosal ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. The present systematic review aimed to assess the literature for studies that compared the outcome of ileal-pouch anal anastomosis in patients with obesity versus patients with ideal weight.

METHODS: A systematic literature search of electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane library was performed and reported in line with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The main outcome measures were pouch failure, pouch complications, overall complications, operation time, blood loss, and hospital stay.

RESULTS: This systematic review included 6 retrospective studies (3,460 patients). Out of the total number of patients, 19.8% had obesity or overweight. Patients with obesity were significantly less likely to have laparoscopic ileal-pouch anal anastomosis compared with patients with ideal body mass index (odds ratio = 0.436; P = .017). The weighted mean operation time and blood loss were significantly longer in the obesity group than the ideal weight group (weighted mean difference = 22.84; P = .006) and (weighted mean difference = 85.8; P < .001). The obesity group was associated with significantly higher odds of total complications (odds ratio = 2.27; P < .001), leak (odds ratio = 1.81; P = .036), and incisional hernia (odds ratio = 4.56; P < .001). The 2 groups had comparable rates of pouch failure, pouchitis, stricture, pelvic sepsis, wound infection, bowel obstruction, ileus, and venous thromboembolism. Male sex, longer operation time, and including inflammatory bowel disease patients only were significantly associated with higher complications in the obesity group.

CONCLUSION: Patients with obesity who undergo ileal-pouch anal anastomosis are more likely to have laparotomy rather than a laparoscopic procedure, have longer operation time, greater blood loss, higher overall complications, leak and incisional hernia, and longer hospital stay.

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