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The Genetic Basis of Hypertriglyceridemia.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertriglyceridemia is a common dyslipidemia associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and pancreatitis. Severe hypertriglyceridemia may sometimes be a monogenic condition. However, in the vast majority of patients, hypertriglyceridemia is due to the cumulative effect of multiple genetic risk variants along with lifestyle factors, medications, and disease conditions that elevate triglyceride levels. In this review, we will summarize recent progress in the understanding of the genetic basis of hypertriglyceridemia.

RECENT FINDINGS: More than 300 genetic loci have been identified for association with triglyceride levels in large genome-wide association studies. Studies combining the loci into polygenic scores have demonstrated that some hypertriglyceridemia phenotypes previously attributed to monogenic inheritance have a polygenic basis. The new genetic discoveries have opened avenues for the development of more effective triglyceride-lowering treatments and raised interest towards genetic screening and tailored treatments against hypertriglyceridemia. The discovery of multiple genetic loci associated with elevated triglyceride levels has led to improved understanding of the genetic basis of hypertriglyceridemia and opened new translational opportunities.

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