Stroke Prevention: Little-Known and Neglected Aspects

M Reza Azarpazhooh, Chrysi Bogiatzi, J David Spence
Cerebrovascular Diseases 2021 May 27, : 1-14
Combining available therapies has the potential to reduce the risk of stroke by 80% or more. A comprehensive review of all aspects of stroke prevention would be very lengthy; in this narrative review, we focus on some aspects of stroke prevention that are little-known and/or neglected. These include the following: (1) implementation of a Mediterranean diet; (2) B vitamins to lower homocysteine; (3) coordinated approaches to smoking cessation; (4) intensive lipid-lowering therapy; (5) lipid lowering in the elderly; (6) physiologically individualized therapy for hypertension based on renin/aldosterone phenotyping; (7) avoiding excessive blood pressure reduction in patients with stiff arteries; (8) treatment of insulin resistance with pioglitazone in stroke patients with prediabetes and diabetes; (9) impaired activation of clopidogrel in patients with variants of CYP2C19; (10) aspirin pseudoresistance due to enteric coating; (11) rationale for anticoagulation in patients with embolic stroke of unknown source; (12) pharmacologic properties of direct-acting oral anticoagulants that should be considered when choosing among them; (13) the identification of which patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis are at a high enough risk to benefit from carotid endarterectomy or stenting; and (14) the importance of age in choosing between endarterectomy and stenting. Stroke prevention could be improved by better recognition of these issues and by implementation of the principles derived from them.

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