Preoperative non-palpable breast lesion localization, innovative techniques and clinical outcomes in surgical practice: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Francesco Garzotto, Rosanna Irene Comoretto, Silvia Michieletto, Gianpaolo Franzoso, Marcello Lo Mele, Dario Gregori, Maria Giuseppina Bonavina, Fernando Bozza, Francesca Caumo, Tania Saibene
Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology 2021 April 22, 58: 93-105
Pre-operative localization of non-palpable breast lesions with non-wired non-ionizing (NWNI) techniques may improve clinical outcomes as reoperation rate, cosmetic outcome and contribute to organizational aspects improvement in breast-conserving surgery (BCS). However only limited literature is available and clinical studies involving these forefront devices are often small and non-randomized. Furthermore, there is a lack of consensus on free margins and cosmetic outcomes definitions. The objective of the present meta-analysis was to determine the crude clinical outcomes reported for the NWNI techniques on BCS. A literature search was performed of PubMed, Embase and Scopus databases up to February 2021 in order to select all prospective or retrospective clinical trials on pre-operative breast lesion localization done with NWNI devices. All studies were assessed following the PRISMA recommendations. Continuous outcomes were described in averages corrected for sample size, while binomial outcomes were described using the weighted average proportion. Twenty-seven studies with a total of 2103 procedures were identified. The technique is consolidated, showing for both reflectors' positioning and localization nearly the 100% rate of success. The re-excision and clear margins rates were 14% (95% CI, 11-17%) and 87% (80-92%), respectively. Overall, positive margins rates were 12% (8-17%). In studies that compared NWNI and wire localization techniques, positive margin rate is lower for the first techniques (12%, 6-22% vs 17%, 12-23%) and re-excision rate is slightly higher using the latter (13%, 9-19% vs 16%, 13-18%). Pre-operative NWNI techniques are effective in the localization of non-palpable breast lesions and are promising in obtaining clear (or negative) margins minimizing the need for re-excision and improving the cosmetic outcomes. Randomized trials are needed to confirm these findings.

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