Engineered ECM models: Opportunities to advance understanding of tumor heterogeneity

Adrian A Shimpi, Claudia Fischbach
Current Opinion in Cell Biology 2021 May 12, 72: 1-9
Intratumoral heterogeneity is a negative prognostic factor for cancer and commonly attributed to microenvironment-driven genetic mutations and/or the emergence of cancer stem-like cells. How aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling regulates the phenotypic diversity of tumor cells, however, remains poorly understood due in part to a lack of model systems that allow isolating the physicochemical heterogeneity of malignancy-associated ECM for mechanistic studies. Here, we review the compositional, microarchitectural, and mechanical hallmarks of cancer-associated ECM and highlight biomaterials and engineering approaches to recapitulate these properties for in vitro and in vivo studies. Subsequently, we describe how such engineered platforms may be explored to define the spatiotemporal dynamics through which cancer-associated ECM remodeling regulates intratumoral heterogeneity and the cancer stem-like cell phenotype. Finally, we highlight future opportunities and technological advances to further elucidate the relationship between tumor-associated ECM dynamics and intratumoral heterogeneity.

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