Diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes

Magdalena Pasarica, Erin St Onge, Ernestine Lee
FP Essentials 2021, 504: 11-15
Type 1 diabetes is defined as a state of hyperglycemia due to insulin deficiency caused by autoimmune pancreatic beta-cell destruction. The risk among individuals in the general population has been estimated at 0.5%. A family history of diabetes and a personal history of conditions associated with type 1 diabetes (ie, autoimmune diseases) increase the risk. Currently, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends screening asymptomatic patients for type 1 diabetes autoimmune markers in the context of clinical research trials. All patients with diabetes should be referred to a diabetes self-management education program and for medical nutrition therapy. Medical nutrition therapy has been shown to lower the A1c by up to 1.9% in patients with type 1 diabetes. The mainstay of management is a regimen of multiple daily injections of insulin or continuous subcutaneous insulin delivered via an insulin pump. For most patients, a regimen consisting of 50% of the total daily dose prescribed as basal insulin and 50% prescribed as bolus insulin is used. Currently, pramlintide is the only Food Drug Administration (FDA)-approved adjunct to insulin therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes. Patients with type 1 diabetes should be screened regularly for hypertension and other associated conditions and complications.

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