The relationship between gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the possible role of dietary fibre

Dominic Salamone, Angela Albarosa Rivellese, Claudia Vetrani
Acta Diabetologica 2021 May 10
Gut microbiota and its metabolites have been shown to influence multiple physiological mechanisms related to human health. Among microbial metabolites, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are modulators of different metabolic pathways. On the other hand, several studies suggested that diet might influence gut microbiota composition and activity thus modulating the risk of metabolic disease, i.e. obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Among dietary component, dietary fibre may play a pivotal role by virtue of its prebiotic effect on fibre-fermenting bacteria, that may increase SCFA production. The aim of this review was to summarize and discuss current knowledge on the impact of dietary fibre as modulator of the relationship between glucose metabolism and microbiota composition in humans. More specifically, we analysed evidence from observational studies and randomized nutritional intervention investigating the relationship between gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids and glucose metabolism. The possible mechanisms behind this association were also discussed.

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