Pre-operative glycaemic control and long-term survival in diabetic patients after coronary artery bypass grafting

Salil Deo, Varun Sundaram, Muhammad Adil Sheikh, Jayakumar Sahadevan, Padmini Selvaganesan, Sri Krishna Madan Mohan, Joseph Rubelowsky, Yakov Elgudin, Richard Josephson, Piroze M Davierwala, Brian Cmolik
European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery 2021 May 10

OBJECTIVES: We analysed the Veteran Affairs data to evaluate the association of pre-operative glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and long-term outcome after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

METHODS: Veterans with diabetes mellitus and isolated CABG (2006-2018) were divided into 4 groups (I: HbA1c <6.5%, II: HbA1c 6.5-8, III 8-10% and IV: HbA1c >10%). The relationship of pre-operative HbA1c and long-term survival was evaluated with a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model and reported as hazard ratios (HR). The cumulative incidence of secondary end-points [myocardial infarction (MI) and repeat revascularization (percutaneous intervention)] for each group was modelled as competing events with cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models.

RESULTS: Overall, 16 190 patients (mean age 64.9 years, male 98%; insulin dependent 53%) with diabetes mellitus underwent isolated CABG. We observed 19.4%, 45.4%, 27% and 8.2% patients in groups I, II, III and IV, respectively. Patients with HbA1c >10% were the youngest (mean age 60.9 years) and had high rates of Insulin dependence (78%). In patients with HbA1c >10%, improvement in levels was observed in 76%. The median follow-up observed was 5.8 (3.2-8.8) years. Compared to the study mean HbA1c (7.3%), mortality rate increased with HbA1c levels >8%, and especially with pre-operative HbA1c levels >9%. Compared to patients with HbA1c <8%, HbA1c 8-10% and >10% were associated with increased MI (HR 1.24 and HR 1.39, respectively) and need for reintervention (HR 1.20 and HR 1.24, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing CABG, pre-operative HbA1c >8% is associated with the increased risk of mortality and adverse cardiac events.

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