Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Vitamin D Level and Bone Mineral Density in Patients With Cirrhosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Indu Grover, Deepak Gunjan, Namrata Singh, Jaya Benjamin, Lakshmy Ramakrishnan, Ravindra M Pandey, Hem C Sati, Anoop Saraya
American Journal of Gastroenterology 2021 April 29

INTRODUCTION: In patients with cirrhosis, highly prevalent vitamin D deficiency and low bone mineral density (BMD) increase the burden of disease, and role of vitamin D supplementation is not clear. So, our aim was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D level and BMD in patients with cirrhosis.

METHODS: Patients with cirrhosis (18-60 years) of any etiology were enrolled. We measured serum 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free T4, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, and health-related quality of life at entry and at 1 year; however, serum calcium was measured at 3-month interval. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine and left hip neck at entry and after 1 year. Statistical analysis was performed according to intention-to-treat analysis.

RESULTS: Of 390 screened patients with cirrhosis, 164 participants (82 in each group) were randomized. There was significant increase in 25(OH)D levels in intervention group after 1 year (33.7 [24.3-45.7] ng/mL vs 23.1 [17-28.2] ng/mL; P < 0.001) when compared with placebo. The mean difference in BMD at lumbar spine and left hip neck was not significantly changed after 1 year of intervention with vitamin D between both groups. There was no significant change in both the groups in levels of calcium, thyroid-stimulating hormone, parathyroid hormone, free T4, IGF-1, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and quality of life.

DISCUSSION: Supplementation with vitamin D for 1 year improves vitamin D levels but did not result in improvement in BMD at lumbar spine and left hip neck in patients with cirrhosis.

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