JOURNAL ARTICLE

Myocardial Histopathology in Patients With Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Hao Cui, Hartzell V Schaff, Juliano Lentz Carvalho, Rick A Nishimura, Jeffrey B Geske, Joseph A Dearani, Brian D Lahr, Alexander T Lee, J Martijn Bos, Michael J Ackerman, Steve R Ommen, Joseph J Maleszewski
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2021 May 4, 77 (17): 2159-2170
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BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by multiple pathological features including myocyte hypertrophy, myocyte disarray, and interstitial fibrosis.

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to correlate myocardial histopathology with clinical characteristics of patients with obstructive HCM and post-operative outcomes following septal myectomy.

METHODS: The authors reviewed the pathological findings of the myocardial specimens from 1,836 patients with obstructive HCM who underwent septal myectomy from 2000 to 2016. Myocyte hypertrophy, myocyte disarray, interstitial fibrosis, and endocardial thickening were graded and analyzed.

RESULTS: The median age at operation was 54.2 years (43.5 to 64.3 years), and 1,067 (58.1%) were men. A weak negative correlation between myocyte disarray and age at surgery was identified (ρ = -0.22; p < 0.001). Myocyte hypertrophy (p < 0.001), myocyte disarray (p < 0.001), and interstitial fibrosis (p < 0.001) were positively associated with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. Interstitial fibrosis (p < 0.001) and endocardial thickening (p < 0.001) were associated with atrial fibrillation pre-operatively. In the Cox survival model, older age (p < 0.001), lower degree of myocyte hypertrophy (severe vs. mild hazard ratio: 0.41; 95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.86; p = 0.040), and lower degree of endocardial thickening (moderate vs. mild hazard ratio: 0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.58 to 0.97; p = 0.019) were independently associated with worse post-myectomy survival. Among 256 patients who had genotype analysis, patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants (n = 62) had a greater degree of myocyte disarray (42% vs. 15% vs. 20%; p = 0.022). Notably, 13 patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic genetic variants of HCM had no myocyte disarray.

CONCLUSIONS: Histopathology was associated with clinical manifestations including the age of disease onset and arrhythmias. Myocyte hypertrophy and endocardial thickening were negatively associated with post-myectomy mortality.

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