Changes in Maxillary Sinus Mucosal Thickening following the Extraction of Teeth with Advanced Periodontal Disease: A Retrospective Study Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

Zheng Cao, Jie Yuan
BioMed Research International 2021, 2021: 6688634

Objectives: To explore the alterations in maxillary sinus mucosal thickening after extracting teeth with severe periodontal disease using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Methods: 30 patients with severe periodontal disease of maxillary posterior teeth that needed to be extracted and who were radiographically diagnosed with mucosal thickening (MT) in the maxillary sinus participated in the study. CBCT scans were taken before tooth extraction and 2-29 months after tooth extraction. The postextraction follow-up time was divided into two groups: group 1 (<4 months) and group 2 (≥4 months). Dimensions of maxillary sinus MT, including the MT zone length (SL) and the maximum thickness of the MT zone (ST), were evaluated preextraction and postextraction; the residual ridge height (RRH) was evaluated at the sites of extracted and nonextracted teeth.

Result: Of the 24 patients with unilateral tooth extraction, there was a statistically significant difference in MT between the extraction and nonextraction sides ( p < 0.05). The RRH at the site of the extracted teeth was significantly lower than that of the nonextracted teeth ( p < 0.05). MT decreased significantly after tooth extraction on the extraction side but not on the nonextraction side. There was no significant difference between group 1 and group 2 regarding the reduction in mucosal thickness over time.

Conclusions: Severe periodontitis can cause MT in the maxillary sinus. The RRH was lower at the sites of extracted teeth. MT reduced quickly by a thorough debridement after tooth extraction in 4 months. MT will not decrease further over time.

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