JOURNAL ARTICLE

Precision nutrition based on phenotypical traits and the (epi)genotype: nutrigenetic and nutrigenomic approaches for obesity care

Omar Ramos-Lopez, Iñaki Milton-Laskibar, J Alfredo Martínez
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 2021 April 14
33859118

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to rationally review and critically appraise the current knowledge in the most relevant nongenetic and genetic factors influencing obesity predisposition. This information may be translated into the implementation of personalized nutrition approaches involving precision nutrigenetic and nutrigenomic strategies for obesity monitoring and weight management.

RECENT FINDINGS: The importance and influence of several nongenetic contributors to obesity onset and individual responses to weight-loss interventions have been highlighted including the role of age, sex or perinatal feeding and others related to an individual's lifestyle and modifiable. Nutrigenetic studies have analysed potential interactions between polymorphisms influencing energy homeostasis/body composition and dietary factors in relation to adiposity phenotypes and therapy responsiveness. A second approach comprises the Nutrigenomic analysis of gene expression modifications in response to the consumption of specific nutrients or dietary bioactive compounds, which may involve epigenetic mechanisms including deoxyribonucleic acid methylation and micro-ribonucleic acid expression profiles.

SUMMARY: Taken together, these findings encompass the importance of taking into account up-to-date advances in Nutrigenetic and Nutrigenomic hallmarks, globally analysing the risk of weight gain and related outcomes after following nutrition counselling, this contributing to improve obesity care considering phenotypical traits and the genetic make-up for precision obesity care.

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