Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) - A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression

Iis Inayati Rakhmat, Yudith Yunia Kusmala, Dewi Ratih Handayani, Henny Juliastuti, Eka Noneng Nawangsih, Arief Wibowo, Michael Anthonius Lim, Raymond Pranata
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome 2021 April 1, 15 (3): 777-782

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aims to synthesize evidence on dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor and mortality in COVID-19 patients and factors affecting it.

METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search from PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases from inception of databases up until 7 March 2021. Studies that met all of the following criteria were included: 1) observational studies or randomized controlled trials that report COVID-19 patients, 2) reporting DPP-4 inhibitor use, 3) mortality, and 4) mortality based on DPP-4 inhibitor use. The exposure was DPP-4 inhibitor, defined as DPP-4 inhibitor use that started prior to COVID-19 hospitalization. The control group was patients with no exposure to DPP-4 inhibitor. The outcome was mortality. The pooled effect estimate was reported as risk ratio (RR).

RESULTS: There were 4,477 patients from 9 studies in this systematic review and meta-analysis. 31% of (15%, 46%) the patients use DPP-4 inhibitor. Mortality occurs in 23% (15%, 31%) of the patients. DPP-4 inhibitor was associated with lower mortality in patients with COVID-19 (RR 0.76 [0.60, 0.97], p = 0.030, I2: 44.5%, p = 0.072). Meta-regression analysis showed that the association between DPP-4 inhibitor and mortality was significantly affected by metformin (RR 1.02 [1.00, 1.04], p = 0.048) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ACEI/ARB) use (RR 1.04 [1.01, 1.07], p = 0.006), but not age (p = 0.759), sex (reference: male, p = 0.148), and hypertension (p = 0.218).

CONCLUSION: DPP-4 inhibitor use was associated with lower mortality in COVID-19 patients, and the association was weaker in patients who were also taking metformin and/or ACE inhibitors.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"