Utility of the Marshall & Rotterdam Classification Scores in Predicting Outcomes in Trauma Patients

Adel Elkbuli, Saamia Shaikh, Kelly McKenney, Hunter Shanahan, Mark McKenney, Kimberly McKenney
Journal of Surgical Research 2021 April 7, 264: 194-198

BACKGROUND: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality in the trauma population. Accurate prognosis remains a challenge. Two common Computed Tomography (CT)-based prognostic models include the Marshall Classification and the Rotterdam CT Score. This study aims to determine the utility of the Marshall and Rotterdam scores in predicting mortality for adult patients in coma with severe TBI.

METHOD: Retrospective review of our Level 1 Trauma Center's registry for patients ≥ 18 years of age with blunt TBI and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 3-5, with no other significant injuries. Admission Head CT was evaluated for the presence of extra-axial blood (SDH, EDH, SAH, IVH), intra-axial blood (contusions, diffuse axonal injury), midline shift and mass effect on basilar cisterns. Rotterdam and Marshall scores were calculated for all patients; subsequently patients were divided into two groups according to their score (< 4, ≥ 4).

RESULTS: 106 patients met inclusion criteria; 75.5% were males (n = 80) and 24.5% females (n = 26). The mean age was 52. The odds ratio (OR) of dying from severe TBI for patients in coma with a Rotterdam score of ≥ 4 compared to < 4 was OR = 17 (P < 0.05). The odds of dying from severe TBI for patients in coma with a Marshall score of ≥ 4 versus < 4 was OR = 11 (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Higher scores in the Marshall classification and the Rotterdam system are associated with increased odds of mortality in adult patients in come from severe TBI after blunt injury. The results of our study support these scoring systems and revealed that a cutoff score of < 4 was associated with improved survival.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"