Role of dietary modifications in the management of type 2 diabetic complications

Manisha J Oza, Ankit P Laddha, Anil Bhanudas Gaikwad, Shrikant R Mulay, Yogesh A Kulkarni
Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society 2021 April 7, : 105602
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Insufficient insulin secretion and insulin action are two major causes for the development of diabetes, which is characterized by a persistent increase in blood glucose level. Diet and sedentary life style play pivotal role in development of vascular complications in type 2 diabetes. Dietary modification is associated with a reprogramming of nutrient intake, which are proven to be effective for the management of diabetes and associated complications. Dietary modifications modulate various molecular key players linked with the functions of nutrient signalling, regulation of autophagy, and energy metabolism. It activates silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog1 (SIRT1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK mainly acts as an energy sensor and inhibits autophagy repressor Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) under nutritional deprivation. Under CR, SIRT1 gets activated directly or indirectly and plays a central role in autophagy via the regulation of protein acetylation. Dietary modification is also effective in controlling inflammation and apoptosis by decreasing the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines like nuclear factor kappa- beta (NF-kβ), tissue growth factor-beta (TGF-β), tissue necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). It also improves glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion through beta cell regeneration. This indicates calorie intake plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes-associated complications. The present review, emphasizes the role of dietary modifications in diabetes and associated complications.

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