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Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Psychological Effects of Primary Nocturnal Enuresis in Chinese Young Adults.

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, risk factors, and effects of primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) on physical and mental health in young adults in mainland China.

METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect information including the sociodemographic characteristics, history of PNE, family history, daytime voiding symptoms, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores, Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). A total of 22,500 university students from 23 provinces and 368 cities in mainland China were included.

RESULTS: In total, 21,082 questionnaires were collected, and 20,345 of them qualified for statistical analysis. The PNE prevalence was 1.17%, and the distribution of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) and nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (NMNE) was 66.1% and 33.9%, respectively. In total, 28% of respondents with PNE reported bedwetting daily, 31.6% between 1 and 7 times weekly, and 40.4% between 1 and 4 times monthly; 80% of PNE cases had no history of treatment. The prevalence of PNE in patients with a family history, frequency, urgency, urinary incontinence, and recurrent urinary tract infections was significantly higher than in those without these conditions (P<0.001). PNE was significantly correlated with the PSQI total score (sleep quality) (P=0.011). The SES score was lower and the SDS was higher (P<0.001) in the PNE group than in those without PNE.

CONCLUSION: In mainland China, the PNE prevalence among young adults was found to be high, and PNE had significant effects on physical and mental health. Risk factors included a family history, daytime voiding symptoms, and lack of treatment.

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