Gadolinium-based contrast agents in neurofibromatosis type 1 (Review)

Florentina Năstase, Diana Sabina Radaschin, Elena Niculeț, Bogdan Ioan Stefanescu, Aurel Nechita, Draganescu Miruna, Liliana Baroiu, Arbune Manuela, Alin Laurenţiu Tatu
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 2021, 21 (5): 530
Gadolinium (symbol Gd) is the chemical element with atomic number 64 and is aductile rare-earth metal, and +3 is its most frequent oxidation state. Gadolinium has an ionic radius of 0.99 Å and is nearly identical to the one of Ca2+ . Gd3+ and Ca2+ can become toxic to biological systems if complete. It slowly reacts with atmospheric oxygen to form a black coating and in nature it is usually found only in an oxidized form. Gadolinium usually has impurities similar to those of other rare-earth metals, when separated, because of their similar chemical properties. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) or von Recklinghausen's disease is an autosomal dominant disorder of tissues of ectodermal origin, accounting for over 90% of neurofibromatosis cases. Diagnosis is primarily clinical and the central nervous system is commonly involved. The screening of the brain with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is utilised to evaluate the patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 and as an aid in the diagnosis of asymptomatic patients when clinical criteria are not met.

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