Tissue Level Changes after Maxillary Sinus Floor Elevation with Three Types of Calcium Phosphate Ceramics: A Radiological Study with a 5-Year Follow-Up

Wilhelmus F Bouwman, Nathalie Bravenboer, Christiaan M Ten Bruggenkate, Francis A Eijsackers, Najada Stringa, Engelbert A J M Schulten
Materials 2021 March 17, 14 (6)
This study evaluates the radiological changes in tissue height after maxillary sinus floor elevation (MSFE) using three types of calcium phosphate ceramics over a period of up to 5 years after dental implant placement. In 163 patients, MSFE was performed. Three groups of patients were distinguished and treated based on the type of calcium phosphate ceramic used and radiologically evaluated: 40 patients with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), 76 patients with biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) 20% hydroxyapatite (HA)-80% β-TCP, and 47 patients with BCP 60% HA-40% β-TCP. Radiological measurements were performed on panoramic radiographs at several time points up to 5 years after dental implant placement. After MSFE, a slow decrease in tissue height measured over time was seen in all three study groups. Resorption of the grafted bone substitutes was more prominent in β-TCP than in BCP ceramics with an HA component (60/40 and 20/80). Loss of tissue height after 5 years was lowest in BCP 60/40 and highest in β-TCP. This radiological study shows a predictable and comparable behavior of the slow decrease in tissue height over time for all three types of calcium phosphate ceramics used in MSFE. The fraction of HA in calcium phosphate ceramics and dental implant loading seems to be beneficial for tissue height maintenance after MSFE.

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