RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Biomarker-targeted therapies for advanced-stage gastric and gastro-oesophageal junction cancers: an emerging paradigm.
Advances in cancer biology and sequencing technology have enabled the selection of targeted and more effective treatments for individual patients with various types of solid tumour. However, only three molecular biomarkers have thus far been demonstrated to predict a response to targeted therapies in patients with gastric and/or gastro-oesophageal junction (G/GEJ) cancers: HER2 positivity for trastuzumab and trastuzumab deruxtecan, and microsatellite instability (MSI) status and PD-L1 expression for pembrolizumab. Despite this lack of clinically relevant biomarkers, distinct molecular subtypes of G/GEJ cancers have been identified and have informed the development of novel agents, including receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, several of which are currently being tested in ongoing trials. Many of these trials include biomarker stratification, and some include analysis of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA), which both enables the noninvasive assessment of biomarker expression and provides an indication of the contributions of intratumoural heterogeneity to response and resistance. The results of these studies might help to optimize the selection of patients to receive targeted therapies, thus facilitating precision medicine approaches for patients with G/GEJ cancers. In this Review, we describe the current evidence supporting the use of targeted therapies in patients with G/GEJ cancers and provide guidance on future research directions.
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