Allogeneic Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Safety in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease

Mya Schiess, Jessika Suescun, Marie-Francoise Doursout, Christopher Adams, Charles Green, Jerome G Saltarrelli, Sean Savitz, Timothy M Ellmore
Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society 2021 March 27

BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation plays a key role in PD pathogenesis, and allogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells can be used as an immunomodulatory therapy.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to prove the safety and tolerability of intravenous allogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in PD patients.

METHODS: This was a 12-month single-center open-label dose-escalation phase 1 study of 20 subjects with mild/moderate PD assigned to a single intravenous infusion of 1 of 4 doses: 1, 3, 6, or 10 × 106 allogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells/kg, evaluated 3, 12, 24, and 52 weeks postinfusion. Primary outcome safety measures included transfusion reaction, study-related adverse events, and immunogenic responses. Secondary outcomes included impact on peripheral markers, PD progression, and changes in brain perfusion.

RESULTS: There were no serious adverse reactions related to the infusion and no responses to donor-specific human leukocyte antigens. Most common treatment-emergent adverse events were dyskinesias (20%, n = 4) with 1 emergent and 3 exacerbations; and hypertension (20%, n = 4) with 3 transient episodes and 1 requiring medical intervention. One possibly related serious adverse event occurred in a patient with a 4-year history of lymphocytosis who developed asymptomatic chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Peripheral inflammation markers appear to be reduced at 52 weeks in the highest dose including, tumor necrosis factor-α (P < 0.05), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 (P < 0.05), whereas brain-derived neurotrophic factor (P < 0.05) increased. The highest dose seems to have demonstrated the most significant effect at 52 weeks, reducing the OFF state UPDRS motor, -14.4 (P < 0.01), and total, -20.8 (P < 0.05), scores.

CONCLUSION: A single intravenous infusion of allogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells at doses of 1, 3, 6, or 10 × 106 allogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells/kg is safe, well tolerated, and not immunogenic in mild/moderate PD patients. © 2021 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

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