JOURNAL ARTICLE

Acute bacterial meningitis

Emma C Wall, Jia Mun Chan, Eliza Gil, Robert S Heyderman
Current Opinion in Neurology 2021 March 22
33767093

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Community-acquired bacterial meningitis is a continually changing disease. This review summarises both dynamic epidemiology and emerging data on pathogenesis. Updated clinical guidelines are discussed, new agents undergoing clinical trials intended to reduce secondary brain damage are presented.

RECENT FINDINGS: Conjugate vaccines are effective against serotype/serogroup-specific meningitis but vaccine escape variants are rising in prevalence. Meningitis occurs when bacteria evade mucosal and circulating immune responses and invade the brain: directly, or across the blood-brain barrier. Tissue damage is caused when host genetic susceptibility is exploited by bacterial virulence. The classical clinical triad of fever, neck stiffness and headache has poor diagnostic sensitivity, all guidelines reflect the necessity for a low index of suspicion and early Lumbar puncture. Unnecessary cranial imaging causes diagnostic delays. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and PCR are diagnostic, direct next-generation sequencing of CSF may revolutionise diagnostics. Administration of early antibiotics is essential to improve survival. Dexamethasone partially mitigates central nervous system inflammation in high-income settings. New agents in clinical trials include C5 inhibitors and daptomycin, data are expected in 2025.

SUMMARY: Clinicians must remain vigilant for bacterial meningitis. Constantly changing epidemiology and emerging pathogenesis data are increasing the understanding of meningitis. Prospects for better treatments are forthcoming.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
33767093
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"