JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Hemostatic Challenges in Neonates

Patricia Davenport, Martha Sola-Visner
Frontiers in Pediatrics 2021, 9: 627715
33738269
The neonatal hemostatic system is strikingly different from that of adults. Among other differences, neonates exhibit hyporeactive platelets and decreased levels of coagulation factors, the latter translating into prolonged clotting times (PT and PTT). Since pre-term neonates have a high incidence of bleeding, particularly intraventricular hemorrhages, neonatologists frequently administer blood products (i.e., platelets and FFP) to non-bleeding neonates with low platelet counts or prolonged clotting times in an attempt to overcome these "deficiencies" and reduce bleeding risk. However, it has become increasingly clear that both the platelet hyporeactivity as well as the decreased coagulation factor levels are effectively counteracted by other factors in neonatal blood that promote hemostasis (i.e., high levels of vWF, high hematocrit and MCV, reduced levels of natural anticoagulants), resulting in a well-balanced neonatal hemostatic system, perhaps slightly tilted toward a prothrombotic phenotype. While life-saving in the presence of active major bleeding, the administration of platelets and/or FFP to non-bleeding neonates based on laboratory tests has not only failed to decrease bleeding, but has been associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality in the case of platelets. In this review, we will present a clinical overview of bleeding in neonates (incidence, sites, risk factors), followed by a description of the key developmental differences between neonates and adults in primary and secondary hemostasis. Next, we will review the clinical tests available for the evaluation of bleeding neonates and their limitations in the context of the developmentally unique neonatal hemostatic system, and will discuss current and emerging approaches to more accurately predict, evaluate and treat bleeding in neonates.

Full Text Links

We have located open access full text paper links.

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
33738269
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"