Proposal to optimize evaluation and treatment of Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES): A Report from FIRES workshop

Sookyong Koh, Elaine Wirrell, Annamaria Vezzani, Rima Nabbout, Eyal Muscal, Marios Kaliakatsos, Ronny Wickström, James J Riviello, Andreas Brunklaus, Eric Payne, Antonio Valentin, Elizabeth Wells, Jessica L Carpenter, Kihyeong Lee, Yi-Chen Lai, Krista Eschbach, Craig A Press, Mark Gorman, Coral M Stredny, William Roche, Tara Mangum
Epilepsia Open 2021, 6 (1): 62-72
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a rare catastrophic epileptic encephalopathy that presents suddenly in otherwise normal children and young adults causing significant neurological disability, chronic epilepsy, and high rates of mortality. To suggest a therapy protocol to improve outcome of FIRES, workshops were held in conjunction with American Epilepsy Society annual meeting between 2017 and 2019. An international group of pediatric epileptologists, pediatric neurointensivists, rheumatologists and basic scientists with interest and expertise in FIRES convened to propose an algorithm for a standardized approach to the diagnosis and treatment of FIRES. The broad differential for refractory status epilepticus (RSE) should include FIRES, to allow empiric therapies to be started early in the clinical course. FIRES should be considered in all previously healthy patients older than two years of age who present with explosive onset of seizures rapidly progressing to RSE, following a febrile illness in the preceding two weeks. Once FIRES is suspected, early administrations of ketogenic diet and anakinra (the IL-1 receptor antagonist that blocks biologic activity of IL-1β) are recommended.


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"