JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Evaluation of percutaneous transcatheter embolization for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of percutaneous transcatheter embolization (TCE) for the treatment of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs).

METHODS: Forty-three consecutive patients (n = 17 males; n = 26 females) with 72 untreated PAVMs underwent coil and/or plug embolization between January 2010 and February 2018. The mean patient age was 42 ± 14 years (range 19-71 years). The median size of the feeding artery was 7.9 ± 2.9 mm (range 3.5-14.0 mm). The arterial blood gas level and cardiac function of all patients were analysed. The technical success rate, recanalization rate, and complications were evaluated. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) examinations were scheduled for 12 months after treatment and every 2-4 years thereafter.

RESULTS: Twenty-five PAVMs were treated with coils alone, twenty-one were treated with plugs alone, and twenty-six were treated with both coils and plugs. The technical success rate was 100%. There were no complications during operation. However, one patient (2.3%) had pulmonary thrombosis and embolism post-operation. The patients' pre-operative and post-operative PaO2 and SaO2 levels were significantly different (p < 0.01). A comparison of the New York Heart Association (NYHA) grade before and after embolization in all patients showed a significant decrease in the post-operative grade (p < 0.01). The 72 PAVMs were divided into three groups (coils only group [n = 25], plugs only group [n = 21], and coils/plugs combined group [n = 26]). After 12 months of follow-up, there were seven reperfusion PAVMs in the coil group, seven reperfusion PAVMs in the plug group, and 1 reperfusion PAVM in the combined group. There were significant differences between the two groups and the combined group.

CONCLUSION: Percutaneous TCE is safe and effective for the treatment of PAVMs. A combination of coils and vascular plugs may be useful for preventing recanalization after the embolization of PAVMs.

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