Epigenetics in Non-tumor Immune-Mediated Skin Diseases

Alejandra Reolid, E Muñoz-Aceituno, F Abad-Santos, M C Ovejero-Benito, E Daudén
Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy 2021 March 1
Epigenetics is the study of the mechanisms that regulate gene expression without modifying DNA sequences. Knowledge of and evidence about how epigenetics plays a causative role in the pathogenesis of many skin diseases is increasing. Since the epigenetic changes present in tumor diseases have been thoroughly reviewed, we believe that knowledge of the new epigenetic findings in non-tumor immune-mediated dermatological diseases should be of interest to the general dermatologist. Hence, the purpose of this review is to summarize the recent literature on epigenetics in most non-tumor dermatological pathologies, focusing on psoriasis. Hyper- and hypomethylation of DNA methyltransferases and methyl-DNA binding domain proteins are the most common and studied methylation mechanisms. The acetylation and methylation of histones H3 and H4 are the most frequent and well-characterized histone modifications and may be associated with disease severity parameters and serve as therapeutic response markers. Many specific microRNAs dysregulated in non-tumor dermatological disease have been reviewed. Deepening the study of how epigenetic mechanisms influence non-tumor immune-mediated dermatological diseases might help us better understand the role of interactions between the environment and the genome in the physiopathogenesis of these diseases.

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