Clinical Observations in Patients With Open Abdomens Managed With Negative Pressure Therapy Using a Perforated Foam Dressing: A Limited Case Series With Brief Literature Review

Luis G Fernández, Marc R Matthews
Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice 2021 January 15

INTRODUCTION: Emergency laparotomy has become an increasingly more frequent and expensive general surgery procedure in terms of cost and resource utilization. Primary fascial closure at the index procedure may not be feasible in many patients, requiring use of the open abdomen (OA) technique. Patients with OA are most often managed with temporary abdomen closure (TAC). Open abdomen negative pressure therapy (OA-NPT) has been shown to be an effective TAC technique, which facilitates re-exploration, protects visceral organs, mitigates fascial retraction, prevents loss of abdominal domain, and provides effective volumetric abdominal fluid management.

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the clinical use and outcomes of a next-generation perforated polyurethane foam dressing that has been developed for use with OA-NPT.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors evaluated a next-generation OA-NPT foam dressing to provide TAC in 4 patients who required OA management. Two surgeons at different facilities exercised their independent surgical discretion in selecting the patients who would receive the next generation OA-NPT foam dressing. Surgical interventions to resolve the underlying pathology were completed using the OA technique. Postoperatively, all patients had intermittent urinary bladder pressures recorded as an indirect method for approximating intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and to monitor clinical evidence of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) or abdominal compartment syndrome.

RESULTS: In these patients, primary fascial closure was achieved and no appreciable increase in IAP was noted. No gastrointestinal complications related to the next generation perforated OA-NPT foam dressing were noted.

CONCLUSIONS: Based on the authors' clinical assessment of the 4 patients who required OA management, the new, perforated OA-NPT foam dressing was effective in providing increased medial tension and contraction without an appreciable increase in IAP.

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