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Complications in Pediatric Acute Mastoiditis: HCUP KID Analysis.

OBJECTIVE: A small proportion of children with otitis media develop acute mastoiditis, which has the potential to spread intracranially and result in significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and management of complications related to pediatric acute mastoiditis using a national database.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of 2016 Kids' Inpatient Database, part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project.

SETTING: Academic, community, general, and pediatric specialty hospitals in the United States.

METHODS: International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification code H70.XXX was used to retrieve records for children admitted with a diagnosis of mastoiditis. Data included patient demographics, intracranial infections, procedures (middle ear drainage, mastoidectomy, and intracranial drainage), length of stay (LOS), and total charges.

RESULTS: In total, 2061 children aged ≤21 years were identified with a diagnosis of acute mastoiditis. Complications included subperiosteal abscess (6.90%), intracranial thrombophlebitis/thrombosis (5.30%), intracranial abscess (3.90%), otitic hydrocephalus (1.20%), encephalitis (0.90%), subperiosteal abscess with intracranial complication (0.60%), petrositis (0.60%), and meningitis (0.30%). Children with intracranial abscesses were more likely ( P < .001) to undergo myringotomy ± ventilation tube insertion (63.7%), mastoidectomy (53.8%), mastoidectomy with ventilation tube or myringotomy (42.5%), intracranial drainage procedure (36.3%), or all 3 key procedures (15.0%). Children with any type of intracranial complication had a significantly longer LOS ( P < .001) and higher total charges ( P < .001). Both a diagnosis of bacterial meningitis and undergoing an intracranial drainage procedure ( P < .001) contributed significantly to LOS and total charges.

CONCLUSION: Patients with intracranial complications are more likely to undergo surgical procedures; however, there is still wide variability in practice patterns, illustrating that controversies in the management of otitis media complications persist.

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