JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW
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Cardiac manifestations, treatment characteristics, and outcomes of paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2: A systematic review.

Background: Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) (PIMS-TS) is a rare clinical syndrome associated with a multiorgan system dysfunction, especially acute cardiac injury, and mandates a higher level of care.

Aim of Review: To investigate cardiac manifestations, treatment characteristics, and outcomes of PIMS-TS.

Key Scientific Concepts of Review: Twenty-six studies were included with 1228 pooled subjects, with a mean age of 8.6 years, which were dominated by male gender (53%), and African ethnicity (31%). 732 (38%) patients were reactive on a serological test, and 457 patients (45%) were positive on SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR. ST-segment abnormalities were the most common ECG findings (16%, n/N: 34/212). Various markers of troponin and the pooled mean of BNP and NT-pro-BNP levels were elevated. Cardiomegaly and pericardial effusion (21.8%, n/N: 164/751) were the most common chest X-ray findings. In echocardiography, the majority of patients' left ventricular ejection fraction was reduced (59.0%, n/N: 180/305), with pericardial effusion/ pericarditis seen the most (17.44%, n/N: 221/1267), and Z score ≥ 2 in 28% (n/N: 42/139). Cardiac MRI findings were consistent with acute myocarditis. Intravenous immunoglobulin, corticosteroids, and vasoactive drugs were frequently utilized. The mean length of stay was 6 days, with most patients (71%, n/N: 834/1163) were admitted to the ICU. However, the overall prognosis was favorable, with 98% alive (n/N: 1235/1260), and more than 50% of patients experienced recovery of left ventricular systolic functions at discharge (116 out of 206 patients).

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