The effect of anatomy on osteogenesis after maxillary sinus floor augmentation: a radiographic and histological analysis

Wenjie Zhou, Feng Wang, Marko Magic, Minjie Zhuang, Jian Sun, Yiqun Wu
Clinical Oral Investigations 2021 February 11

OBJECTIVES: To assess how anatomy and osteogenesis correlated with results of maxillary sinus floor augmentation (MSFA).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with partial edentulism and advanced atrophy of the posterior maxillae (≤ 4 mm residual bone height, RBH) underwent MSFA with sole deproteinized bovine bone matrix (DBBM) through a lateral approach. After a 6 to 9-month healing period, bone core biopsies were obtained from the sites of implant insertion for histological evaluation. The correlations between anatomical and histomorphometric variables were analyzed in a multiple regression model.

RESULTS: Forty-nine patients were recruited. One biopsy per patient was obtained from the augmented sinus. Thirty-seven bone core biopsies were intact and met the requirement for histomorphometry analysis. The mean (± standard deviation) percentages of vital bone (VB), remaining DBBM, and non-mineralized tissue were 18.25 ± 4.76%, 27.74 ± 6.68%, and 54.08 ± 6.07%, respectively. No statistically significant correlations were found between RBH and VB% (p = 0.44) or between sinus contour and VB% (p = 0.33). However, there was an inverse correlation between the sinus width (SW) and VB % (SW1 : R2 = 0.13, p = 0.03; SW2 : R2 = 0.15, p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS: After a healing period of 6-9 months, wider sinuses augmented with DBBM alone tended to have a lower proportion of new bone formation, while RBH and sinus contour did not appear to affect osteogenesis after MSFA.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study emphasized the effect of anatomy on osteogenesis after MSFA. The result of the study may have an indication to the clinician that SW is a consideration when selecting the bone grafting material and deciding the healing period of MSFA.

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