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Synthesis, antibacterial, and cytotoxicity evaluation of oleanolic acid-4-aminoquinoline based hybrid compounds.

AIM: To prepare a class of oleanolic-based compounds.

BACKGROUND: Conventional drugs used to treat infectious diseases suffer from limitations such as drug toxicity and drug resistance. The resistance of microbes to antimicrobial agents is a significant challenge in treating microbial infections. Combining two or more drugs with different modes of action to treat microbial infections results in a delay in developing drug resistance by the microbes. However, it is challenging to select the appropriate choice of drugs for combination therapy due to the differences in stability and pharmacokinetic profile of the drugs.Therefore, developing hybrid compounds using the existing drugs is a promising approach to design effective antimicrobial agents.

OBJECTIVES: To prepare oleanolic-based hybrid compounds followed by characterization, in vitro antibacterial, and cytotoxicity evaluation.

METHODS: Oleanolic acid-4-aminoquinoline-based hybrid compounds weresynthesized via esterification and amidation. The compounds werecharacterized using FTIR, NMR, and UHPLC-HRMS. Oleanolic acid was isolated from the flower buds of Syszygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry, a specie from Kingdom Plantae, order Mytales in Myrtaceae family. Their antibacterial and cytotoxicity activity was determined against selected strains of bacteria assessed using the microdilution assay and sulforhodamine B assay against selected cancer cell lines.

RESULTS: The synthesized hybrid compounds exhibited significant antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC13047), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC19659), Staphylococcus aureus as well as Gram-negative bacteria,Klebsiella oxytoca (ATCC8724), Escherischia coli (ATCC25922), and Proteus vulgaris (ATCC6380)with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1.25 mg/mLcompared to oleanolic acid (2.5 mg/mL). Compounds 13 and 14 displayed significant cytotoxic effectsin vitro against the cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and DU 145) compared to the oleanolic acid (IC50 ˃ 200 µM).

CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that the modification of C28 of OA enhanced its biological properties.

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