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Contraception across transgender.

Sexual and reproductive issues are essential elements of well-being in cisgenders as well as for the transgender population. Gender-affirming hormonal treatments (GAHTs) aim to induce phenotypical changes congruent with the desired gender and subsequent reduction of gender dysphoria. While genital surgical procedures including hysterectomy and/or adenectomy cause permanent loss of ability to conceive, GAHT may induce a varying degree of reversible loss of fertility. For these reasons, transgender men and women need to be counseled concerning contraceptive options and potential effects of treatment on reproductive function before initiating GAHT. The literature reports that sexual activity with genital involvement is performed by less than half of transgender persons who have been sexually active with a partner in the past. Testosterone (T) is the most commonly used compound in transmen and usually leads to amenorrhea within 1-12 months from first administration, however cessation of menses does not mean anovulation. Some studies report cases of unintended pregnancies among transgender men under masculinizing therapy, therefore T treatment cannot be considered a contraceptive option. Currently available contraceptive options have pros and cons in transmen and scarce literature exists on their use. The effects of GAHT on fertility in transwomen are even less well known. Prolonged estrogen exposure induces sperm suppression and morphological changes of the spermatozoa, however the degree of resulting pregnancy protection is unclear. Further research to inform the contraceptive counseling in this population is mandatory.

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