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Comparative study of emphysematous pyelonephritis and pyelonephritis in type 2 diabetes: a single-centre experience

Tauseef Nabi, Nadeema Rafiq, Mohammad Hifz Ur Rahman, Shahnawaz Rasool, Nayeem U Din Wani
Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders 2020, 19 (2): 1273-1282

PURPOSE: Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have severe complications and high morbidity with poor prognosis as compared to Pyelonephritis. The aim was to study clinical features, microbiological profile, complications of EPN and pyelonephritis in T2D patients.

METHODS: This was a hospital-based prospective study done on 200 T2D patients with upper UTI. Various clinical, biochemical parameters and urine examination and culture were monitored. Patients were followed up for 6 months with respect to number of UTIs, glycemic control and renal parameters.

RESULTS: Pyelonephritis was present in 180(90%) and EPN in 20(10%) of upper UTI patients. Longer duration of diabetes, presence of nephropathy, chronic kidney disease (CKD), hypertension (HTN), history of symptomatic UTI in a prior year, renal calculi and obstruction increase the risk of EPN. Patients with EPN commonly present with vomiting, flank pain altered sensorium and renal tenderness. Complications like diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS), multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS), acute kidney injury (AKI) and hypotension occur frequently in EPN as compared to pyelonephritis in T2D patients. Patients with EPN had poor glycemia and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as compared to pyelonephritis. Bacteriuria was present in 90% and 66.7% of EPN and pyelonephritis patients respectively. E. coli was the most common isolate in both UTI groups. A significant number of EPN patients develop recurrent UTI. Patients with EPN have an improvement in glycemia on follow up, but renal parameters do not improve on follow up, while as pyelonephritis patients have an improvement in glycemia and renal parameters with intensive treatment. Recurrent UTI in upper UTI patients leads to worsening of glycemia and renal parameters.

CONCLUSION: Complications frequently occur in EPN patients as compared to pyelonephritis.

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