How I treat cold agglutinin disease

Sigbjørn Berentsen
Blood 2021 March 11, 137 (10): 1295-1303
The last decades have seen great progress in the treatment of cold agglutinin disease (CAD). Comparative trials are lacking, and recommendations must be based mainly on nonrandomized trials and will be influenced by personal experience. Herein, current treatment options are reviewed and linked to 3 cases, each addressing specific aspects of therapy. Two major steps in CAD pathogenesis are identified, clonal B-cell lymphoproliferation and complement-mediated hemolysis, each of which constitutes a target of therapy. Although drug treatment is not always indicated, patients with symptomatic anemia or other bothersome symptoms should be treated. The importance of avoiding ineffective therapies is underscored. Corticosteroids should not be used to treat CAD. Studies on safety and efficacy of relevant drugs and combinations are briefly described. The author recommends that B cell-directed approaches remain the first choice in most patients requiring treatment. The 4-cycle bendamustine plus rituximab combination is highly efficacious and sufficiently safe and induces durable responses in most patients, but the time to response can be many months. Rituximab monotherapy should be preferred in frail patients. The complement C1s inhibitor sutimlimab is an emerging option in the second line and may also find its place in the first line in specific situations.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.