Novel Mannich bases of ciprofloxacin with improved physicochemical properties, antibacterial, anticancer activities and caspase-3 mediated apoptosis

Islam M Abdel-Rahman, Muhamad Mustafa, Soad A Mohamed, Ramadan Yahia, Mohamed Abdel-Aziz, Gamal El-Din A Abuo-Rahma, Alaa M Hayallah
Bioorganic Chemistry 2021 January 7, 107: 104629
The design, synthesis and identification of a novel series of Mannich bases of ciprofloxacin was reported. Naphthol derivatives 2a and 2b showed highly potent cytotoxic activity among the tested compounds. Compound 2a showed broad spectrum antiproliferative activity with GI50 of 2.5-6.79 µM with remarkable selectivity towards renal and prostate cancers with selectivity ratios ranging from 0.17 to 6.79. Independently, 2a showed outstanding activity against colon cancer HOP-92 cell lines with IC50 of 6.66 µM while 2b showed highly potent activity against ovarian cancer cell lines with IC50 of 0.97 µM. Results showed that 2b induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and apoptosis; compound 2b showed over-expression of caspase-3 protein level (449.2 ± 7.95) compared to doxorubicin (578.7 ± 14.4 pg/mL). Meanwhile, compounds 2a and 2b experienced outstanding activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Interestingly, compound 2j experienced high activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC of 0.036 and 0.043, respectively. Compound 2d revealed 27 folds and 22 folds, respectively increasing of activity over ciprofloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA(reference strain). Compound 2d showed high activity against Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA (reference strain) and MRSA (clinical strain) with MIC of 0.57, 0.52, 0.082 µg/mL, respectively. Interestingly, the most active tested compounds were found to have promising physicochemical and drug likeness properties. The Mannich bases 2j, 2d and 2g showed promising antibacterial activities, while naphthols 2a and 2b showed promising antiproliferative and antibacterial activities that require further optimization.

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