Takotsubo syndrome: Does "Diabetes Paradox" exist?

Keerat Rai Ahuja, Salik Nazir, Vardhmaan Jain, Toshiaki Isogai, Anas M Saad, Beni R Verma, Shashank Shekhar, Ravi Kumar, Ehab A Eltahawy, John E Madias
Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care 2021 January 19, 50 (2): 316-322

BACKGROUND: Previous small-scale studies have reported conflicting findings regarding the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its association with outcomes in patients with takotsubo syndrome (TTS) OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the prevalence of DM and its association with outcomes in TTS patients.

METHODS: Nationwide inpatient sample (NIS) was queried to extract patient information from January 1, 2009 to September 30, 2015. Propensity score matching (PSM) was done to compare mortality and other in-hospital outcomes.

RESULTS: A total of 40,327 hospitalizations for TTS were included. The prevalence of DM in TTS was 19.3% vs 23.1% (p-value < 0.01) in patients without TTS in the NIS from 2009 to 2015. In the PSM cohort, there was no difference in in-hospital mortality (1.1% vs 1.4%; p = 0.76), stroke (1.2% vs 0.9%; p = 0.09), cardiogenic shock (3.7% vs 3.9%; p = 0.61), cardiac arrest (1.2% vs 1.2%; p = 0.94), ventricular arrhythmias (3.7% vs 3.3%; p = 0.23), circulatory support (2.1% vs 1.8%; p = 0.17), and invasive mechanical ventilation (4.9% vs 4.7%; p = 0.54) in TTS patients with versus without diabetes. In sub-group analysis, diabetes with chronic complications patients were found to have lower mortality (0.7% vs 2.0%; p = 0.04) compared to patients without diabetes and those with uncomplicated diabetes (0.6% vs 2.6%; p = 0.002).

CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of DM was lower in TTS in comparison to patients without TTS. In addition, complicated DM patients were found to have lower in-hospital mortality. Further studies are needed to assess the mid and long-term outcomes of DM with and without chronic complications in TTS.

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