Aldose reductase regulates doxorubicin-induced immune and inflammatory responses by activating mitochondrial biogenesis

Himangshu Sonowal, Ashish Saxena, Sumin Qiu, Sanjay Srivastava, Kota V Ramana
European Journal of Pharmacology 2021 January 19, : 173884
We have recently demonstrated that aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor; fidarestat prevents doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiotoxic side effects and inflammation in vitro and in vivo. However, the effect of fidarestat and its combination with Dox on immune cell activation and the immunomodulatory effects are not known. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of fidarestat in combination with Dox in vivo and in vitro. We observed that fidarestat decreased Dox-induced upregulation of CD11b in THP-1 monocytes. Fidarestat further attenuated Dox-induced upregulation of IL-6, IL-1β, and Nos2 in murine BMDMs. Fidarestat also attenuated Dox-induced activation and infiltration of multiple subsets of inflammatory immune cells identified by expression of markers CD11b+ , CD11b+ F4/80+ , Ly6C+ CCR2high , and Ly6C+ CD11b+ in the mouse spleen and liver. Furthermore, significant upregulation of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis PGC-1α, COX IV, TFAM, and phosphorylation of AMPKα1 (Ser485) was observed in THP-1 cells and livers of mice treated with Dox in combination with fidarestat. Our results suggest that fidarestat by up-regulating mitochondrial biogenesis exerts protection against Dox-induced immune and inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo, providing further evidence for developing fidarestat as a combination agent with anthracycline drugs to prevent chemotherapy-induced inflammation and toxicity.

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