Preterm Birth and Antiretroviral Exposure in Infants HIV-exposed Uninfected

Micah Piske, Annie Q Qiu, Evelyn J Maan, Laura J Sauvé, John C Forbes, Ariane Alimenti, Patricia A Janssen, Deborah M Money, Hélène C F Côté
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2021 January 21

BACKGROUND: Infants HIV-exposed and uninfected (IHEU) who are born to women living with HIV are at an increased risk of preterm birth (PTB). Antenatal exposure to certain maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens has been associated with PTB, although existing studies in this domain are limited and report discordant findings. We determined odds of PTB among IHEU by antenatal ART regimens and timing of exposure, adjusting for maternal risk factors.

METHODS: We retrospectively studied IHEU born in British Columbia (BC), Canada between 1990 and 2012 utilizing provincial health administrative databases. We included data from a control group of infants HIV-unexposed and uninfected (IHUU) matched ~3:1 for each IHEU on age, sex and geocode.

RESULTS: A total of 411 IHEU and 1224 IHUU were included in univariable analysis. PTB was more frequent among IHEU (20%) compared with IHUU (7%). IHEU were more often antenatally exposed to alcohol, tobacco, as well as prescription, nonprescription, and illicit drugs (IHEU: 36%, 8% and 35%; vs. IHUU: 3%, 1% and 9%, respectively). After adjusting for maternal substance use and smoking exposure, IHEU remained at increased odds of PTB [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) (95% CI): 2.66; (1.73, 4.08)] compared with matched IHUU controls. ART-exposed IHEU (excluding those with NRTIs only ART) had lower adjusted odds of PTB compared with IHEU with no maternal ART exposure, regardless of regimen [aOR range: 0.16-0.29 (0.02-0.95)]. Odds of PTB between IHEU exposed to ART from conception compared with IHEU exposed to ART postconception did not differ [aOR: 0.91 (0.47, 1.76)]; however, both groups experienced lower odds of PTB compared with IHEU with no maternal ART [preconception: aOR: 0.28 (0.08, 0.89); postconception: aOR 0.30 (0.11, 0.83)].

CONCLUSIONS: BC IHEU were over twice as likely to be born preterm compared with demographically matched controls. Maternal substance use in pregnancy modulated this risk; however, we found no adverse associations of PTB with exposure to antenatal ART.

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