JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a current review.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and its deleterious effects are present in at least one-third of ICU patients. Increased recognition of IAH has led to significant reduction in the incidence of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Many questions remain regarding what therapeutic interventions truly reduce morbidity and mortality associated with IAH/ACS. Recent research sheds new light on the effects of IAH in individual organ systems and unique disease states. This paper will review recent research in IAH/ACS recognition, treatment, and management.

RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research on IAH/ACS includes an improved understanding of the prevalence of IAH/ACS and confirmation of its independent association with organ failure. Specifically, new research adds clarity to the effects of IAH/ACS on individual organ systems and specific disease states. These results combine to improve the clinical ability to diagnose, monitor, and treat IAH/ACS.

SUMMARY: There is significant research on the broad impact of IAH/ACS in the ICU setting. Focus on IAH/ACS has gone beyond the purview of intensivists and surgeons to include outstanding work by specialists in multiple sub-specialties. These advances have generated improvements in current treatment algorithms. We review recent IAH/ACS literature and have categorized the most pertinent results into organ system-specific contributions.

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