Real world Data on the Concurrent Use of P-glycoprotein or Cytochrome 3A4 Drugs and Non-vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants in Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation

Roopinder K Sandhu, Sunjidatul Islam, Douglas Dover, Jason G Andrade, Justin Ezekowitz, Finlay A McAlister, Nathaniel M Hawkins, Padma Kaul
European Heart Journal. Quality of Care & Clinical Outcomes 2021 January 22

AIM: To determine the concurrent use of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or Cytochrome (CYP) 3A4 drugs and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) among non-valvular AF (NVAF) patients in clinical practice.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Administrative databases identified all adults (≥ 18 years) with incident or prevalent NVAF who initiated a NOAC in an outpatient or inpatient setting, between July 2012-March 2019 in Alberta, Canada. Concurrent use was defined as a P-gp or CYP3A4 dispensation in the 100 days prior to and overlapping NOAC dispensation. The P-gp and CYP3A4 drugs were categorized into 3 groups and drug-drug interactions classified according to the 2018 European Heart Rhythm Association practical guide. Time-varying Cox models calculated crude hazard ratio (HR) of outcomes at 1-year. A total of 642,255 NOAC dispensations occurred for 36,566 NVAF patients. Of these, 71,643 (11.2%) had a concurrent dispensation of an interacting P-gp or CYP3A4 drug. Overall, the drug-drug interaction was defined as contraindicated in 2.5%, avoid/caution in 2.3%, and for another 6.7% should require a dose adjustment. When all drug-drug interactions were considered, inappropriate NOAC prescribing occurred in 63% (n = 45,080) of dispensations. There was a significantly higher risk of death (HR 1.58, 1.47-1.70) for a drug-drug interaction but not for stroke (p = 0.89) or major bleeding risk (p = 0.13).

CONCLUSIONS: The concurrent use of P-gp or CYP3A4 drugs and NOACs was uncommon but important since almost two-thirds of patients with drug-drug interactions had inappropriate NOAC dosing and a higher risk of death. More attention to this issue is needed.

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