Incidence and risk factors for respiratory tract bacterial colonization and infection in lung transplant recipients

L Paglicci, V Borgo, N Lanzarone, M Fabbiani, C Cassol, M G Cusi, M Valassina, S Scolletta, E Bargagli, L Marchetti, P Paladini, L Luzzi, A Fossi, D Bennett, F Montagnani
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 2021 January 21
To evaluate incidence of and risk factors for respiratory bacterial colonization and infections within 30 days from lung transplantation (LT). We retrospectively analyzed microbiological and clinical data from 94 patients transplanted for indications other than cystic fibrosis, focusing on the occurrence of bacterial respiratory colonization or infection during 1 month of follow-up after LT. Thirty-three percent of patients developed lower respiratory bacterial colonization. Bilateral LT and chronic heart diseases were independently associated to a higher risk of overall bacterial colonization. Peptic diseases conferred a higher risk of multi-drug resistant (MDR) colonization, while longer duration of aerosol prophylaxis was associated with a lower risk. Overall, 35% of lung recipients developed bacterial pneumonia. COPD (when compared to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, IPF) and higher BMI were associated to a lower risk of bacterial infection. A higher risk of MDR infection was observed in IPF and in patients with pre-transplant colonization and infections. The risk of post-LT respiratory infections could be stratified by considering several factors (indication for LT, type of LT, presence of certain comorbidities, and microbiologic assessment before LT). A wider use of early nebulized therapies could be useful to prevent MDR colonization, thus potentially lowering infectious risk.

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