Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis: Prevalence, favouring pulmonary diseases and prognosis

Thomas Maitre, Jonathan Cottenet, Cendrine Godet, Adrien Roussot, Nafiz Abdoul Carime, Vichita Ok, Antoine Parrot, Philippe Bonniaud, Catherine Quantin, Jacques Cadranel
European Respiratory Journal 2021 January 21
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is an emerging disease in patients with common chronic pulmonary diseases (CPD). While its prevalence is linked to tuberculosis (TB) in endemic countries, epidemiologic and prognostic data are lacking in low TB incidence countries. The aim of this study was to describe these features in CPA patients hospitalised in France between 2009 and 2018.We estimated the prevalence and mortality of hospitalised CPA patients using the French nationwide administrative hospital database. We also assessed the association with CPDs, thoracic interventions, and malnutrition.From 2009 to 2018, 17 290 patients were hospitalised in France for CPA, with an increasing prevalence during this period. Most patients were male (63.5%) with a median age of 65 years at CPA diagnosis, living in farming regions and large cities. The proportion of underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema during the previous 5 years was 44% and 22%, respectively, whereas it was only 3% for both TB and non-TB mycobacterial (NTM) infections. The mortality rates during the first hospitalisation, at 1 year, and at 5 years were 17%, 32%, and 45%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, mortality rates were increased in patients aged over 65 years, males and patients with malnutrition, diabetes, or lung cancer history. The risk of mortality in patients with COPD or emphysema was higher compared to those with previous mycobacterial lung infection.In France CPA is an emerging infection commonly associated with non-mycobacterial CPD. This shift in the distribution profile of underlying CPD will likely worsen CPA mortality.

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