Lung ultrasound and BNP to detect hidden pulmonary congestion in euvolemic hemodialysis patients: a single centre experience

Domenico Giannese, Alessandro Puntoni, Adamasco Cupisti, Riccardo Morganti, Enrico Varricchio, Claudia D'Alessandro, Claudia Mannucci, Piera Serio, Maria Francesca Egidi
BMC Nephrology 2021 January 21, 22 (1): 36

BACKGROUND: Dry weight assessment in hemodialysis (HD) remains a challenge. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of subclinical pulmonary congestion using lung ultrasound (LUS) in maintenance HD patients with no clinical or bioimpedance signs of hyperhydration. The correlation between B-lines Score (BLS) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) was also evaluated.

METHODS: Twenty-four HD patients underwent LUS and BNP dosage at the end of the mid-week HD session, monthly for 6 months . LUS was considered as positive when BLS was >15. Hospitalizations and cardiovascular events were also evaluated in relation to the BLS.

RESULTS: LUS+ patients at baseline were 16 (67%), whereas 11 (46%) showed LUS + in at least 50% of the measurements (rLUS+ patients). Only the rLUS+ patients had a higher number of cardiovascular events [p=0.019, OR: 7.4 (CI 95%. 1.32-39.8)] and hospitalizations [p=0.034, OR 5.5 (CI 95% 1.22- 24.89)]. A BNP level of 165 pg/ml was identified as cut-off value for predicting pulmonary congestion, defined by BLS >15.

CONCLUSION: Prevalence of pulmonary congestion as assessed by LUS and persistent or recurrent BLS >15 were quite prevalent findings in euvolemic HD patients. In the patients defined as rLUS+, a higher rate of cardiovascular events and hospital admissions was registered. BNP serum levels > 165 pg/ml resulted predictive of pulmonary congestion at LUS. In the dialysis care, regular LUS examination should be reasonably included among the methods useful to detect subclinical lung congestion and to adjust patients' dry weight.

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