Safety and Efficacy of Tandem Hemodialysis and Selective Plasma Exchange in Pretransplant Desensitization of ABO-Incompatible Kidney Transplantation

Ako Hanaoka, Toshihide Naganuma, Daijiro Kabata, Daichi Morii, Yoshiaki Takemoto, Junji Uchida, Ayumi Shintani
Blood Purification 2021 January 21, : 1-8

INTRODUCTION: In patients requiring both hemodialysis (HD) and apheresis, the 2 treatments can be performed simultaneously. At our hospital, selective plasma exchange (SePE) is often performed along with HD for removal of isoagglutinins before ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation. The 2 treatments can be completed within the HD schedule, which allows the treatment time to be shortened. This approach is also less stressful for patients because fewer punctures are required. In this study, we investigated the safety and efficacy of tandem HD and SePE.

METHODS: A total of 58 SePE sessions in 30 ABOi kidney transplant recipients were investigated. The SePE circuit was connected in parallel with the HD circuit, and tandem HD and SePE therapy was performed using filtration methods. The SePE sessions were divided into 2 groups: those with SePE monotherapy (group S, n = 20) and those with tandem therapy (group T, n = 38). Changes in transmembrane pressure (TMP), arterial pressure (AP), venous pressure (VP), and decrease in isoagglutinin titers over time were compared between the groups with adjustment for background data.

RESULTS: The internal pressures (AP and VP) were higher in group T, and there were significant differences in changes of TMP and AP over time between groups T and S. Membrane exchange was required in 1 case in group T due to coagulation. There was a more significant decrease of immunoglobulin G isoagglutinin titers in group T compared to group S. No case had antibody-mediated rejection after transplantation.

DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: In HD/SePE tandem therapy, internal pressures were higher and TMP and AP tended to increase more compared to SePE monotherapy, but we were able to perform the 2 treatments without any functional problems. Tandem therapy was also effective in decreasing isoagglutinin titers, which suggests that this may be a beneficial treatment modality as apheresis before ABOi kidney transplantation.

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