Self esteem and clinical features in a clinical sample of children with ADHD and social anxiety disorder

Fahri Çelebi, Dilek Ünal
Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 2021 January 21, : 1-6

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to investigate self-esteem and clinical features in clinically referred children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and compare these to children and adolescents without SAD.

METHODS: One hundred and twenty child and adolescent drug-naïve outpatients (6-15 years of age) with a primary diagnosis of ADHD were included. Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL), was used to evaluate ADHD and comorbidities. Parents filled in clinical and sociodemographic data form, Conners Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) and patients filled in Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES) and Çapa Social Phobia Scale for children and adolescents (ÇESFÖ).

RESULTS: Forty-six of the 120 (38.3%) children had comorbid SAD. Forty-six patients with SAD (ADHD + SAD group) and 74 patients without SAD (ADHD without SAD group) were compared in terms of the sociodemographic and clinical features, rate of psychiatric comorbidities, and rating scale scores. The rate of inattentive subtype of ADHD ( p  = 0.009), and social anxiety symptom scores ( p  < 0.001) were higher and self-esteem was lower ( p  < 0.001) in the ADHD + SAD group. Additionally, there was a statistically significant correlation between ÇESFÖ scores and CPRS anxiety subscale scores ( r  = 0.300, p  = 0.001), and also Rosenberg self-esteem scale scores ( r  = 0.470, p  < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: Children and adolescents with ADHD who had comorbid SAD may differ from ADHD patients without SAD in terms of ADHD subtype, clinical features and self-esteem.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"