Nausea and Vomiting in 2021: A Comprehensive Update

Matthew Heckroth, Robert T Luckett, Chris Moser, Dipendra Parajuli, Thomas L Abell
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 2021 April 1, 55 (4): 279-299

GOAL: A comprehensive review of treatments for nausea and vomiting (N/V).

BACKGROUND: N/V are common symptoms encountered in medicine. While most cases of acute N/V related to a specific cause can be straightforward to manage, other cases of acute N/V such as chemotherapy-induced N/V and especially chronic unexplained N/V can be difficult to control, leading to a significant decline in the patient's quality of life and increased cost of medical care from repeated hospitalizations.

STUDY: Traditional management has relied on pharmacotherapy which may be inadequate in a certain proportion of these patients. Many of the medications used in the management of N/V have significant side effect profiles making the need for new and improved interventions of great importance.

RESULTS: This review covers a broad review of the pathophysiology of N/V, pharmacotherapy, including safety concerns and controversies with established pharmaceuticals, newer immunotherapies, bioelectrical neuromodulation (including gastric electrical stimulation), behavioral and surgical therapies, and complementary medicine.

CONCLUSION: On the basis of emerging understandings of the pathophysiology of N/V, improved therapies are becoming available.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"