JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Nausea and Vomiting in 2021: A Comprehensive Update

Matthew Heckroth, Robert T Luckett, Chris Moser, Dipendra Parajuli, Thomas L Abell
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 2021 April 1, 55 (4): 279-299
33471485

GOAL: A comprehensive review of treatments for nausea and vomiting (N/V).

BACKGROUND: N/V are common symptoms encountered in medicine. While most cases of acute N/V related to a specific cause can be straightforward to manage, other cases of acute N/V such as chemotherapy-induced N/V and especially chronic unexplained N/V can be difficult to control, leading to a significant decline in the patient's quality of life and increased cost of medical care from repeated hospitalizations.

STUDY: Traditional management has relied on pharmacotherapy which may be inadequate in a certain proportion of these patients. Many of the medications used in the management of N/V have significant side effect profiles making the need for new and improved interventions of great importance.

RESULTS: This review covers a broad review of the pathophysiology of N/V, pharmacotherapy, including safety concerns and controversies with established pharmaceuticals, newer immunotherapies, bioelectrical neuromodulation (including gastric electrical stimulation), behavioral and surgical therapies, and complementary medicine.

CONCLUSION: On the basis of emerging understandings of the pathophysiology of N/V, improved therapies are becoming available.

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