Improving Outcomes for Children Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Therapy Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Taylor L Olson, Erika R O'Neil, Kristen J Kurtz, Graeme MacLaren, Marc M Anders
Critical Care Medicine 2021 January 6

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to provide an updated review of survival for pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy as well as characterize the demographics, clinical variables, and complications associated with mortality.

DESIGN: Retrospective database review of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry from 1990 to 2019.

SETTING: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers reporting to Extracorporeal Life Support Organization.

PATIENTS: Patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation greater than 28 days to 18 years old with International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision, International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision, and current procedural terminology codes consistent with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were included.


MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Demographics, year of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation run, clinical variables, comorbid diagnoses, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation complications were assessed in relation to the primary study outcome of survival to hospital discharge. Ninety patients were included in the final analysis. The overall survival rate for the study period was 19%. However, the survival rate in the last decade (2010-2019) improved to 26% (p = 0.01; odds ratio 9.4 [1.2-74.8]). Factors associated with decreased survival included comorbid malignancy, elevated peak inspiratory pressure in conventionally ventilated patients, and pulmonary and metabolic complications on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients posthematopoietic stem cell transplantation supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation have improving survival rates over time. With 26% of patients (16/62) surviving to hospital discharge in the last decade (2010-2019), history of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may no longer be considered an absolute contraindication to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. As advancements are made in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapies and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation management, the indications for life-saving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support among patients posthematopoietic stem cell transplantation may expand accordingly.

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