[Nephrocalcinosis in children]

Catherine Monet-Didailler, Jean-François Chateil, Lise Allard, Astrid Godron-Dubrasquet, Jérôme Harambat
Néphrologie & Thérapeutique 2021, 17 (1): 58-66
Nephrocalcinosis is defined by calcium phosphate or calcium oxalate deposits in the kidney parenchyma, particularly in tubular epithelial cells and interstitial tissue. It should be differentiated from urolithiasis where calcium salts deposits are located in the kidney and urinary tract. The epidemiology of nephrocalcinosis in children is unknown but the condition is not so rare, with an increased incidence in preterm infants. Often detected as an incidental finding, nephrocalcinosis may be classified according to the radiological type: medullary, cortical or diffuse. Nephrocalcinosis in children can be caused by a variety of etiology. The most common causes concern medullary nephrocalcinosis and include hereditary tubular disorders, in particular distal renal tubular acidosis and Dent disease, metabolic disorders such as idiopathic hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria, and iatrogenic causes such as vitamin D intoxication. In the newborn, the main cause is hypercalciuria of the premature baby, whose multifactorial origin is largely iatrogenic. Primary hyperoxaluria which can lead to early onset nephrocalcinosis and usually to chronic kidney disease should always be considered and further investigated. In order to provide a specific diagnosis, it is essential to take into account the family history, the clinical context and complete laboratory data. Early initiation of an appropriate etiological treatment is recommended and may prevent or delay the progression to chronic kidney disease in some cases.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"