Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children related to COVID-19: An update regarding the presentation of two critically ill patients

Pedro Taffarel, Facundo Jorro Barón, Ana Paula Rodríguez, Jesica Widmer, Claudia Meregallia
Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría 2021, 119 (1): e26-e35
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children related to COVID-19 is defined as the presence of persistent fever, inflammation, and organ dysfunction, with evidence of past or recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, and excluding other microbial causes. It overlaps with other inflammatory diseases (Kawasaki disease and toxic shock syndrome) and shares some features with hypercytokinemia conditions (hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and macrophage activation syndrome). It differs from these and severe acute COVID-19 in its clinical presentation and laboratory parameters. It has a potentially severe course and may occur with cardiovascular failure; mortality is low (2 %). Here we provide an update on this syndrome and describe the presentation of two clinical cases with cardiovascular dysfunction who required vasoactive support and invasive ventilation. Serum lab tests showed inflammation parameters. Both patients were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and systemic corticosteroids and had a favorable course.

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