Cancer screening in the transgender population: a review of current guidelines, best practices, and a proposed care model.
Over the last 50 years cancer mortality has decreased, the biggest contributor to this decrease has been the widespread adoption of cancer screening protocols. These guidelines are based on large population studies, which often do not capture the non-gender conforming portion of the population. The aim of this review is to cover current guidelines and practice patterns of cancer screening in transgender patients, and, where evidence-based data is lacking, to draw from cis-gender screening guidelines to suggest best-practice screening approaches for transgender patients. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Google Scholar and Medline, using all iterations of the follow search terms: transgender, gender non-conforming, gender non-binary, cancer screening, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, anal cancer, and all acceptable abbreviations. Given the limited amount of existing literature inclusion was broad. After eliminating duplicates and abstract, all queries yielded 85 unique publications. There are currently very few transgender specific cancer screening recommendations. All the guidelines discussed in this manuscript were designed for cis-gender patients and applied to the transgender community based on small case series. Currently, there is not sufficient to evidence to determine the long-term effects of gender-affirming hormone therapy on an individual's cancer risk. Established guidelines for cisgender individuals and can reasonably followed for transgender patients based on what organs remain in situ . In the future comprehensive cancer screening and prevention initiatives centered on relevant anatomy and high-risk behaviors specific for transgender men and women are needed.
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