JOURNAL ARTICLE

Clinico-radiological Profile of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome and Its Associated Risk Factors in PICU: A Single-center Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Bhubaneswar, Odisha

Chinmay K Behera, Mukesh K Jain, Reshmi Mishra, Pratap K Jena, Santosh K Dash, Ranjan K Sahoo
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine 2020, 24 (12): 1223-1229
33446977

Objective: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiographic entity of heterogeneous etiologies having similar clinical and neuroimaging features. Pediatric data are sparse, making early diagnosis challenging, which needs a high index of suspicion. So, we conducted this study to evaluate clinico-radiological features, associated risk factors, etiology, and outcome in children.

Materials and methods: This is a retrospective case series of patients, diagnosed as having PRES and followed up at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern India between September 2016 and December 2019.

Results: Among 16 patients with a median age of 9.5 years [interquartile range (IQR) 8-13.75] and a male preponderance (75%), common underlying diseases were post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (56.3%) and renovascular hypertension (12.5%). Acute elevation of blood pressure was found in all patients ( n = 16). The neurological symptom was seizure (87.5%), mental changes (68.75%), headache (43.8%), vomiting (31.3%), and visual disturbances (31.3%). The most common triggering factor was hypertension (100%), use of mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone (12.5%), and hemodialysis (12.5%). Anemia was present in 15 (93.4%) patients at the time of admission. All showed abnormal neuroimaging with 55% having atypical involvement. The most common site was the parietal-occipital cortex (88%), frontal and temporal lobe (44% cases each), and the cerebellum (13%). Clinical recovery was followed by a radiological resolution in all survived except in one, who developed visual impairment.

Conclusion: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with acute neurological disturbances and underlying diseases such as renal disorders, vasculitis, malignancy, and use of immunosuppressant accompanied by hypertension. Early diagnosis and treatment of comorbid conditions are of paramount importance for the early reversal of the syndrome.

How to cite this article: Behera CK, Jain MK, Mishra R, Jena PK, Dash SK, Sahoo RK. Clinico-radiological Profile of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome and Its Associated Risk Factors in PICU: A Single-center Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Bhubaneswar, Odisha. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(12):1223-1229.

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